Renewable Energy Sources ( RES) in Romania




In the 2002 regular report on Romania's progress towards accession to the EU, the EU commission comes to the conclusion that Romania does not devote the necessary resources to improving energy efficiency and to promoting renewal energy. The present efficiency of production means and networks is very poor, mainly due to a lack of investment. The Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation is in charge of promoting energy efficiency but has very limited financial and human resources - which is a demonstration of the low priority Romania gives to energy efficiency. This is particularly worrying, since the energy intensity of the economy is very high (estimated at around 8 times the EC average. So the situation is going to be changed on the next 2 years.

The primary target for RES applications will be the holiday houses & chalets on the mountain and Black Sea beach area. The number of those holiday houses are growing very fast year after year. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium-sized towns will be considered as the secondary market segment for RES applications (about 61% of a total population of 22.8 million).

Romania’s domestic energy production from coal, lignite, oil, gas and hydropower, covers at present about 70% of the energy needs. The share of RES to the primary energy consumption is 5.3 % (excluding large hydro is only 2.9%, large hydro>10 MW, small hydro 10 MW). The average figure for the European Union is about 4% (including large hydro) with increasing trends in all RES sectors, especially in wind energy. RES project implementation will reduce the dependency on energy imports and consequently improve the balance of payments for the energy sector. Moreover, efforts will primary focus on decentralized RES systems targeting the growing domestic and agricultural energy demand for thermal and power needs.

Solar Energy -Solar Photovoltaic (PV):

The average solar radiation in Romania ranges from 1,100 to 1,300 kWh/m2 per year. A solar radiation map has been issued by the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. There are good opportunities for solar energy development, and experiences from the past can be used. In the Renewable Energy Resource Assessment, the EBRD estimates domestic solar water heating for public buildings and hotels, passive solar systems, and stand-alone systems for sites far from the grid, to be the most promising applications.

Due to the UE energy requirements, the number of stand-alone PV plants that could be developed/implemented within a rural electrification program supported by the State should increase significantly on the next coming years, following the conclusion of a demonstration PV program. In the short term, PV applications for rural electrification could be developed with limited public funds. Other specific applications could be developed on a commercial basis without any public funds.

Small HydroPower (SHP):

The hydro-electric potential is estimated at 40 TWh, 12 TWh/a are developed: The 362 Hydroelectric power plants with an overall installed capacity of 6120 MW represent 27.9% of the overall installed capacity of the Romanian power system. Hydro Energy Resource Potential The hydro-electric potential is estimated at 40 TWh. The opportunities for hydro development in Romania are very good. Around 5000 locations in Romania are favorable for SPH’s.

Wind Energy
There are two main fields of applications:

  • Grid connected applications on a strictly commercial point of view. The future of these applications depends on the changes of the Romanian cost structure for conventional power generation and/or provision of subsidies. We expect that to happen on 2005.
  • Supply of isolated remote area. If there is a political commitment to supply these isolated settlements (i.e. public funding) small wind turbines are an economically attractive alternative in connection with small diesel generators and PV system, where wind resources are sufficient.

There is only one demonstrating wind energy project in Romania (4 kW). Two demonstration projects with over 100 kW each, in the Semenic Mountains and at Black Sea offshore, are no longer in operation due to lack of funds. There is one current project (22 750 kW and 4 2 MW turbines at Constanta, Black Sea) and another project of 600KW on Ploiesti.

A countrywide wind atlas was issued by the "Energy Research and Modernizing Institute" (ICEMENERG), in 1993. It indicates wind speeds of 4.5 - 11.5 m/s at 50m heights in various areas, notably offshore. Based on the available wind atlas, Romania has very good technical potential for wind energy development. Large areas with wind speeds over 11m/s are identified. Incentives would be the provisions of the Directive 77 and the National Strategy for Energy Development on Medium Term.


  • Eurelectric: Union of the Electricity Industry. EURELECTRIC (2002): Towards a pan-European Energy Market; Ref: 2002-030-0428
  • Enerdata: ENERDATA; World Energy Database. 2002: country report: Romania.
  • EBRD (edt., 2003): Romania. Renewable Energy Country Profile Version 0.6b. Strategic Assessment of the Potential for Renewable Energy in the EBRD Countries of Operation, Stage 1.
  • WFB: The CIA World Fact Book
  • European Commission: COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, 2002 Regular report on Romania's progress towards accession
  • AGA: Öst. Agrarverlag (Hrsg.) Forstjahrbuch 2003; cited from: Geneva Timber and Forest Study Papers No. 12; Forest and Forest Industries country fact sheets; UN-ECE/FAO 1997
  • SAVE II BEEP Final National Report Romania
  • Capacity for Climate Protection for Central and Eastern Europe
  • Regional Environmental Centre/World Resources Institute
REEEP background paper Romania


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