the 2002 regular report on Romania's progress towards
accession to the EU, the EU commission comes to the conclusion
that Romania does not devote the necessary resources to
improving energy efficiency and to promoting renewal energy.
The present efficiency of production means and networks is
very poor, mainly due to a lack of investment. The Romanian
Agency for Energy Conservation is in charge of promoting
energy efficiency but has very limited financial and human
resources - which is a demonstration of the low priority
Romania gives to energy efficiency. This is particularly
worrying, since the energy intensity of the economy is very
high (estimated at around 8 times the EC average. So the
situation is going to be changed on the next 2 years.
primary target for RES applications will be the holiday houses
& chalets on the mountain and Black Sea beach area. The
number of those holiday houses are growing very fast year
after year. The total rural population,
together with the urban population living in medium-sized
towns will be considered as the secondary market segment for
RES applications (about 61% of a total population of 22.8
domestic energy production from coal, lignite, oil, gas and
hydropower, covers at present about 70% of the energy needs.
The share of RES to the primary energy consumption is 5.3 %
(excluding large hydro is only 2.9%, large hydro>10 MW,
small hydro 10 MW). The average figure for the European Union
is about 4% (including large hydro) with increasing trends in
all RES sectors, especially in wind energy. RES project
implementation will reduce the dependency on energy imports
and consequently improve the balance of payments for the
energy sector. Moreover, efforts will primary focus on
decentralized RES systems targeting the growing domestic and
agricultural energy demand for thermal and power needs.
Energy -Solar Photovoltaic (PV):
average solar radiation in Romania ranges from 1,100 to 1,300
kWh/m2 per year. A solar radiation map has been issued by the
National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. There are
good opportunities for solar energy development, and
experiences from the past can be used. In the Renewable Energy
Resource Assessment, the EBRD estimates domestic solar water
heating for public buildings and hotels, passive solar
systems, and stand-alone systems for sites far from the grid,
to be the most promising applications.
to the UE energy requirements, the number of stand-alone PV
plants that could be developed/implemented within a rural
electrification program supported by the State should increase
significantly on the next coming years, following the
conclusion of a demonstration PV program. In the short term,
PV applications for rural electrification could be developed
with limited public funds. Other specific applications could
be developed on a commercial basis without any public funds.
hydro-electric potential is estimated at 40 TWh, 12 TWh/a are
developed: The 362 Hydroelectric power plants with an overall
installed capacity of 6120 MW represent 27.9% of the overall
installed capacity of the Romanian power system. Hydro Energy
Resource Potential The hydro-electric potential is estimated
at 40 TWh. The opportunities for hydro development in Romania
are very good. Around 5000 locations in Romania are favorable
There are two main fields of applications:
Grid connected applications on a
strictly commercial point of view. The future of these
applications depends on the changes of the Romanian cost
structure for conventional power generation and/or
provision of subsidies. We expect that to happen on 2005.
Supply of isolated remote area. If
there is a political commitment to supply these isolated
settlements (i.e. public funding) small wind turbines are
an economically attractive alternative in connection with
small diesel generators and PV system, where wind
resources are sufficient.
is only one demonstrating wind energy project in Romania (4
kW). Two demonstration projects with over 100 kW each, in the
Semenic Mountains and at Black Sea offshore, are no longer in
operation due to lack of funds. There is one current project
(22 750 kW and 4 2 MW turbines at Constanta, Black Sea) and
another project of 600KW on Ploiesti.
countrywide wind atlas was issued by the "Energy Research
and Modernizing Institute" (ICEMENERG), in 1993. It
indicates wind speeds of 4.5 - 11.5 m/s at 50m heights in
various areas, notably offshore. Based on the available wind
atlas, Romania has very good technical potential for wind
energy development. Large areas with wind speeds over 11m/s
are identified. Incentives would be the provisions of the
Directive 77 and the National Strategy for Energy Development
on Medium Term.
REEEP background paper Romania
Eurelectric: Union of the Electricity Industry.
EURELECTRIC (2002): Towards a pan-European Energy Market;
World Energy Database. 2002: country report: Romania.
EBRD (edt., 2003): Romania. Renewable
Energy Country Profile Version 0.6b. Strategic
Assessment of the Potential for Renewable Energy in the
EBRD Countries of Operation, Stage 1.
CIA World Fact Book
European Commission: COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
Regular report on Romania's progress towards accession
AGA: Öst. Agrarverlag (Hrsg.) Forstjahrbuch 2003;
cited from: Geneva Timber and Forest Study Papers No. 12;
Forest and Forest Industries country fact sheets; UN-ECE/FAO
SAVE II BEEP Final National Report Romania
Capacity for Climate Protection for Central and
Regional Environmental Centre/World Resources